Forest Policy for 

Grenada, Carriacou and Petit Martinique



Prepared by the Forest Policy Drafting Committee (A. Joseph, D. Antoine,

 S. Ferguson, R. Frederick and Y. Renard) based on decisions taken

during the 1-week ‘Consensus-building’ workshop in July 1998

Final editing carried out by the senior staff of the Forestry Department


Approved by Cabinet – March 1999


Forests and forest resources play an essential role in the economic, social and cultural development of Grenada. They provide essential goods and services, and are an integral part of the national heritage. The conservation of the country’s forest resources is an economic, social and moral imperative. It should contribute to national development objectives, including the elimination of poverty.

Grenadians require an environment which is clean, safe and healthy for all (people, plants and animals), and which is well-managed for its economic, social, cultural, aesthetic and other benefits, with the maintenance of its full natural productive capacity.

This policy is intended to provide guidance to all stakeholders concerned with the wise use and sound management of the nation’s forest resources. ‘Forest’ is understood to include all forest ecosystems[2] and non-agricultural trees, as well as the goods and services that they provide.


2          Goal

Maximise the contribution of forests to environmentally-sound social and economic development.


3          Objectives

a)    conserve species, ecosystems, and genetic diversity

b)    maintain, enhance and restore the ability of forests to provide goods and services on a sustainable basis

c)    optimise the contribution of forest resources to social and economic development

d)    maintain a positive relationship between the Grenadian people and their forest environment


4          Strategic directions


A number of important directions have been identified, to guide the implementation of the objectives in a number of sub-sectors (in alphabetical order – apart from Carriacou and Petit Martinique):


.1          Biodiversity


a)    maintain representative samples of all forest ecosystems

b)    protect all species which are important because of their endemicity, rarity or value

c)    establish and maintain a base of knowledge on Grenada’s biodiversity

d)    build awareness and appreciation of biodiversity and its importance

e)    promote the sustainable use of genetic resources for social, spiritual and economic benefits

f)     build the capacity of Grenadian institutions to participate in the conservation and management of the country’s biodiversity

g)    create incentives and other mechanisms to encourage the conservation of privately-owned forests

h)    encourage the participation of government and community stakeholders in programmes for biodiversity conservation

i)      minimise conversion of natural forest into plantations, particularly in upland areas

j)      minimise and control all burning and wild fires in forest areas


.2          Mangroves


a)    develop a positive perception of mangroves

b)    promote sustainable uses of mangroves

c)    develop and establish a structured collaborative management system with clearly defined roles and responsibilities

d)    develop legislation to control the use of mangroves and to allow for contractual agreements between owners, users and government

.3          Non-timber forest products


a)    promote the incorporation of non-timber forest product management in all forest areas

b)    establish collaborative management arrangements between users and owners, where appropriate

c)    conduct research into the traditional, modern and potential uses of non-timber forest products

d)    increase the supply of raw materials for arts and craft



.4          Recreation and eco-tourism


a)    provide opportunities for forest-based recreation

b)    enhance and diversify the nation’s tourism product

c)    bring social and economic benefits to communities located near forest areas

d)    minimise negative impacts of recreational and touristic uses on the forest

e)    involve communities in the development and management of eco-tourism sites

f)     review institutional arrangements for the management of protected forest areas to ensure that it is integrated, effective and efficient

.5          Timber production



a)    rationalise the production of timber

b)    meet the local demand for high-value hard wood for the furniture industry

c)    develop and use a Code of Practice for all timber harvesting and extraction on State land



.6          Tree planting



a)    encourage tree planting to reduce soil erosion, improve soil fertility, beautify and enhance the environment, provide timber and other products and maintain biodiversity

b)    develop programmes to encourage stakeholders (e.g. schools and other community groups / organisations) in tree planting in urban and rural areas

c)    create incentives for tree planting on private lands


.7          Watershed management



a)    adopt an integrated approach to watershed management, with appropriate institutional arrangements

b)    conserve all ground and surface water resources and protect from pollution and depletion

c)    maximise soil cover and prevent deforestation, as far as possible, in all watershed areas

d)    minimise soil erosion and sedimentation, particularly for the benefit of aquatic species and ecosystems (both freshwater and marine)

e)    control infra-structural development and improve farming practices in catchment areas

f)     develop incentives for proper watershed management practices

g)    identify and recommend alternatives for activities detrimental to watersheds



.8          Wildlife management



a)    conserve wildlife for the benefit of public education, hunting, recreation and biodiversity

b)    limit the negative impacts of wildlife on agriculture

c)    conduct research on population dynamics of important wildlife species

d)    develop effective systems to control hunting and the sale of wild meat



.9          Carriacou and Petit Martinique


a)    ensure that the specificity of Carriacou and Petit Martinique is taken into account in the implementation of all aspects of this policy

b)    develop effective systems for the control of grazing and the movement of animals

5          Requirements for implementation

The attainment of the goal, objectives and strategic directions will require the following elements:

a)    adoption of the policy by the Government of Grenada

b)    commitment of the Government of Grenada and all other stakeholders to its effective implementation

c)    participation of people and institutions in all aspects of implementation, on the basis of a full and informed understanding of the rationale for and contents of the policy

d)    greater public awareness of the importance of the forest and the requirements for its conservation at all levels through effective environmental education

e)    use of effective, workable and practical approaches and tools, compatible with other policy instruments

f)     transparency and accountability, with an adequate flow of information among all concerned parties, and with mechanisms for feedback

g)    clear definition of the roles and responsibilities of the various partners in the implementation of the policy

h)    integration, institutional linkages and collaborative arrangements among relevant governmental agencies, as well as between government and civil society, including the establishment of co-ordinating bodies for key areas such as environmental education and watershed management

i)      respect for and compatibility with internationally accepted norms and practices and participation in relevant international agreements

j)      establishment of procedures and indicators for on-going monitoring and evaluation of impacts and external factors, and for adaptation of policy directions and instruments on that basis

k)    adequate capacity within all relevant institutions


               l)  appropriate financing from:



                        -   government

                        -   other sources (NGO-sourced, grants, etc.)

                        -   revenue generation (e.g. user fees)

m)  adoption of a facilitatory role by key Government departments, in particular the Forestry Department (Ministry of Agriculture) and the Agriculture Division (Ministry of Carriacou and Petit                    Martinique Affairs)

n)    review of forest-related legislation and to ensure its conformity with the terms of the policy and enforcement of all forest-related legislation

o)   formulation and effective implementation of strategic plans, programmes and projects 

Annex A.

The Forestry Department felt that not only should stakeholders be consulted concerning the content of the policy but that they should also be responsible for designing and monitoring the policy development process. To this end the ‘Forest Policy Process Committee’ was formed which was scheduled to meet three times. After potential members had been contacted and the purpose of the committee clarified the first meeting took place in October 1997.It was followed by meetings in January and April, 1998.

The committee comprised the following members: 

David Antoine                                     Planning, Ministry of Finance

Raymond Baptiste                              Land Use Division, MoA

Egbert Barrett                                     Productive Farmers’ Union

Byron Campbell                                  Agency for Rural Transformation

Michael Church                                  Ministry of Agriculture

Rolax Frederick                                  Forestry Department, MoA

Clement McLeish                                Logger / furniture manufacturer

Vincent Morain                                    Ministry of Education

Leroy Neckles                                     NAWASA

Denise Peters                                     Agricultural Extension Division, MoA

Paul Phillip                                          Fisheries Division, MoA

Lynden Robertson                              Ministry of Health and Environment

Bernadette L. Sylvester                      Ministry of Carriacou and Petit Martinique Affairs

Augustus Thomas                               Forestry Department, MoA

Ester Thomas                                     Board of Tourism

Judy Williams                                      GRENCODA

Raymond Walker                                National Parks Unit, Ministry of Tourism

Errol Williams                                      Exclusive Hunting and Fishing Association

Chair / facilitator:                                 Yves Renard, Caribbean Natural Resources Institute

Secretary:                                            Robert Dunn, DFID Forestry Adviser

The first meeting clarified that the policy should be for the entire nation, not one institution alone. Also that the process of development was as important as the final content. The committee designed the consultation process during the year and proposed a week-long workshop in July 1998 to review the information and opinions so that a consensus could be developed. This consensus, in turn, was to be developed into a draft policy which would be submitted to Cabinet around the beginning on September 1998.

The second meeting reviewed the 11 ‘sub-sector’ studies being written, primarily by Forestry Department staff. The third meeting reviewed the proposed structure for the ‘consensus-building’ workshop and identified the stakeholders that should be invited.

A variety of methods were used to consult Grenadians during the year:

        • The Forest Policy Questionnaire:     This was developed by members of the committee and designed to cover a wide variety of forest-related issues. It was printed in full in the three national weekly newspapers and also circulated by hand through members of the committee. 431 were returned which provided invaluable information and opinions from every sector of Grenadian society. 
        • Community consultation meetings:     14 meetings were held throughout the country’s three islands. Most meetings lasted 2-3 hours and much valuable information and ideas came out of these consultations. Around 20 people came to each meeting. One of the main purposes of the meetings was to provide Grenadians who had been unable to complete the questionnaire to with an opportunity to air their views.
        • Radio phone-ins:     Five one-hour radio phone-ins were organised which discussed a variety of forest-related issues.
        • Forestry lesson for primary schools:     A lesson was developed and circulated to primary schools with the hope of obtaining some feed-back for the policy development process but, although it was used in some schools the response was negligible.
        • Forest Policy ‘sub-sector’ Studies:     All the studies incorporated an element of consultation, including questionnaires, and informal /semi-structured interviews.



3          The ‘Consensus-building’ workshop: 6th – 10th July, 1998.


The year of information collection and public consultation culminated in a 5-day workshop which involved over 200 participants from all three islands.

The eleven ‘sub-sector’ studies were completed in time prior to the workshop for participants to be sent copies of those that they had indicated that they wished to attend on the Thursday.

On the first day the information and opinions collected during the year were presented and the issues highlighted. On the second and third days the participants developed a ‘vision’, a ‘goal’, broad ‘objectives’ and also recommended a ‘process for implementation’ for the policy. 

Ten different sub-sector workshops were held on Thursday, 9th July, nine in Westmoreland School, St. George’s and one in the Hillsborough Community Centre, Carriacou. 171 participants, from every background and interest group, came to discuss and reach a consensus on a variety of forestry sub-sectors. The workshop participants had already received the study relating to the workshops they were attending to allow them to fully contribute to the discussions.

On Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday evenings a 5-person committee sat to draft the output of the day’s discussions. This enabled the participants to be able to present an initial draft relating to the Forest Policy to senior policy makers on Friday, 10th July. The Committee comprised:

Yves Renard               Exec. Director of CANARI (facilitator/secretary)

Alan Joseph                Chief Forestry Officer, Forestry Department (returned from study leave)

Sandra Ferguson        Exec. Director of the Agency for Rural Transformation (ART)

David Antoine             Planning Officer, Ministry of Finance

Rolax Frederick          Acting Chief Forestry Officer, Forestry Department

All those who had been asked to participate to the entire workshop in July were also invited to a meeting to review the structure and content of the draft prepared by the Drafting Committee. The meeting was attended by 38 stakeholders and generated a new structure and amended some of the content.


Annex B.


It was agreed that, in order to effectively develop a new forest policy, participants of the ‘Consensus-building’ workshop needed to agree on a ‘Vision’ for the nation’s development to help guide them.

Although the participants are not suggesting that this ‘vision’ – developed by forestry sector stakeholders – receive the approval of the Cabinet or of any other group, it was felt that it would be appropriate to record it in an Annex.

The vision developed was based on the following elements:

11.            an equitable, just and people-centred society; attentive to the needs of all sectors; socially integrated; with participatory institutions; capable of coping with the challenges provoked by internal and external change and of responding pro-actively to issues

12.            a society based on self-worth, committed to freedom of thought, expression and belief, and built on positive humanistic and spiritual values

13.            a society where individuals and institutions have full respect for each other and for their natural environment

14.            a society where the basic needs of people are met, and from which poverty has been eliminated

15.            sustainable economic growth, within ecological limits, with a diversified economy, where goods and services are equitably distributed

16.            economic development built on the country’s natural and human capital

17.            a national culture which is:

-        rooted in indigenous expressions

-        dynamic

-        progressive


18.            an environment which is clean, safe and healthy for all (people, plants, animals), and which is well-managed for its economic, social, cultural, aesthetic and other benefits, with the maintenance of its full natural productive capacity.


Annex C.


(a)  as far as possible, local species should be used in plantations and reforestation programmes

(b)  the negative impacts of exotic species should be minimised

(c)  there must be effective and active management of forests, particularly with the establishment of protected areas and the preparation and implementation of management plans

(d)  develop regulations to maintain the integrity and support the appropriate development of forest ecosystems

(e)  Grenada should become a signatory to the CITES Convention




(a)  Grenada should become a signatory to the Ramsar Convention

(b)  an inventory of mangroves should be conducted



(a)  recreational and touristic uses of the forest should be organised

(b)  eco-tourism sites and activities should be developed in a manner which create economic opportunities for local communities

(c)  sites for recreational parks should be allocated



(a)  there should be no logging of natural forest in the Grand Etang Forest Reserve, as well as in state forests at Mount St. Catherine’s, Morne Gazo and Annandale[3]

(b)  sustainable harvesting of state forests – outside the forest areas listed above –  should be permitted, whenever appropriate and feasible, with the preparation of management plans, if possible

(c)  selective harvesting can be permitted in plantation areas within the Grand Etang Forest Reserve and Annandale

(d)  natural regeneration should be encouraged where feasible and justified

(e)  logging of private forests should be encouraged whenever appropriate and feasible

(f)   tree planting should be encouraged on government land, whenever appropriate and feasible(g)  government’s involvement in harvesting and processing should be progressively phased out



(a)  the Forestry Department should distribute tree seedlings to communities

(b)  indiscriminate cutting of trees should be controlled

(c)  the Forestry Department’s extension services should be strengthened



(a)  stream banks and hillside vegetation should be protected and, where necessary, regenerated

(b)  a review of the current classification of watershed areas should be undertaken

(c)  there should be reforestation within degraded catchment areas

(d)  surface and ground water should be effectively monitored for both quality and quantity

(e)  watershed management-related legislation should be developed and enforced



(a)  the Forestry Department should be given a mandate for terrestrial wildlife management

(b)  the establishment of a licensing system for hunting should be considered

(c)  a comprehensive wildlife management plan should be developed (including designation of wildlife sanctuaries, scheduling of ‘close’ season, etc.)

(d)  consider planting trees to provide food for animals in forest areas

(e)  hunters should be encouraged to become better organised


(a)  optimise the economic and social benefits generated from the use of forest resources to increase public awareness of the environmental, social and economic benefits derived from forest resources

(b)  establish a system for the management of eco-tourism in Carriacou and Petit Martinique

(c)  existing legislation should be enforced, with particular attention to land development

(d)  local governmental and non-governmental institutions should be strengthened

(e)  an effective programme of mangrove conservation and management should be developed

(f)   national parks should be established and soundly managed

 In this document ‘Grenada’ means ‘Grenada, Carriacou and Petit Martinique’

 From coastal scrub and mangroves through to cloud forests

 All three areas are in the process of being gazetted as forest reserves