Grenada's Wildlife Biodiversity
Mammalia – Marsupialia
Three native species of terrestrial mammals occur in Grenada. – The lesser Chapman’s Murine Opossum, The Greater Chapman’s Murine Opossum and the Nine Banded Armadillo. The population status of these mammals since hurricane Ivan is unknown. An indefinite ban was put on hunting of these animals.
The Lesser Chapman's murine opossum, mouse opossum or manicou (Marmosa fuscata carri) is strictly a nocturnal animal which uses its prehensile tail for climbing and transporting bedding material.
The Greater Chapman’s Murine Opossum or manicou Marmosa robinsoni chapmani) is a common omnivorous animal which may prey upon poultry and wild birds at night. It is hunted for its meat. This species may have been introduced by Amerindians while making journeys in their perogues (Groom, 1970).
Armadillo -Dasypus novemcinctus (Linnaeus)
Manicou - Marmosa robinsoni chapmani
3.1.3. EDENTATA - The Nine banded armadilloOrder Xenarthra : Family Dasypodidae : Dasypusnovemcinctus (Linnaeus).
The Nine banded armadillois confined to forested areas at Grand Etang and Mt. St. Catherine and is under heavy pressure from hunting. About the size of a large cat, upperparts encased in a bony carapace with large shields on shoulders and rump and nine bands in between; front feet with four toes, middle two longest; hind foot five-toed, the middle three longest, all provided with large, strong claws; tail long, tapering and completely covered by bony rings; colour brownish, the scattered hairs yellowish white. There are 30 or 32 peg-like teeth.
External measurements average: total length, 760 mm; tail, 345 mm; hind foot, 85 mm. Weight of adult males, 5-8 kg; females, 4-6 kg. The bony, scaled shell of the armadillo protects it from attacks by predators.
A prolific digger, armadillos dig many burrows, as well as dig for food. Distribution is often determined by soil conditions, since the animal will not survive in areas where the soil is too hard to dig. Many other wildlife species use and benefit from these abandoned burrows. Eats insects and other invertebrates, occasionally eats bird eggs.
Breeding occurs in July, the embryo remains in a dormant state until November. Four young are born in a burrow in March. All four young, always of the same sex, are identical quadruplets and developed from the same egg. They even share a single placenta while in the womb. Armadillos are the only mammals in which multiple young forms from a single egg with any regularity.
RODENTIA - Dasyprocta liporina - agouti - This agouti is extinct on the Island due to over hunting and the aggressive mongoose. Hurricane "Janet" in 1955 may have given the final push to extinction.
CARNIVORA Herpestes auropunctatus – The Burmese mongoose was Introduced to Grenada in the 1880s for biological control of rats and snakes in agricultural (sugarcane) habitats, from which the animals have quickly spread throughout the surrounding areas.
Mongooses are generalist feeders, agile and have the ability to adapt to new surroundings. Grenada lack predators and native species have not evolved anti-predator tactics, providing a safe environment and an easy food base for mongooses.
Mongooses have both a high rate of reproduction (breeds two or three times a year, litters of three) and a young age of first reproduction (females can breed at the age of 10 weeks). A female can produce up to 36 individuals in a typical four year life span.
The mongoose has well developed carnassial teeth used to tear flesh. Its feet have four or five digits each with long non retractile claws, which are adapted for digging up invertebrates.
The mongoose is a voracious and opportunistic predator of a variety of native species and live stock.
Mongoose: Herpestes auropunctatus
The mongooseis a predator of birds (especially ground nesters), small mammals and reptiles (especially snakes and iguanas). Its impact on invertebrates is not known
The mongoose shelters in hollow logs or trees, holes in the ground (dens) or rock crevices. The individual home-ranging diameter of a male is 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) and ½ mile (0.8 kilometer) for a female. The mongoose seldom lives past the age of four years.
It is a vector and reservoir of rabies and leptospirosis
PRIMATES - Cercopithecus mona - The African mona monkey was introduced from West Africa during the slave trade period. It may be seen quite readily in Grand Etang and St. Catherine Upper Montane Forests toward the middle and top of the trees. They are also found in woodlands and in farmlands, but very rarely.
They are very dangerous and destructive to the local fauna. The hurricane of 1955 reduced their numbers, but their populations have reached new proportions with the limited use of firearms for hunting during recent years.
Mona monkey (Cercopithecus mona) at Grand Etang
is a small Old World monkey with a body length of 1.1 to 1.8 feet and a long tail of 2.3 to 3 feet. They are a colorful species. Their ventral surface and buttocks are white. The upper half of their face is bluish-gray with a white band on their forehead. They have dark eyebrowns and a pinkish snout. Around their face, the hair is yellow and a dark stripe runs from between the eyes to the ears. Their cheeks are greyish-yellow and their lips are white. Other prominent features are their long thick sideburns and white long tufts on their ears. Their tail is near black on top while grey underneath with a black tip at the end.
Males are typically larger than females, but they share similar physical characteristics. Males usually weigh around 5 kilograms while females usually weigh around 4 kilograms
Not much is known about the mating behavior of the mona monkey. However, since their social organization consists of large predominantly-female groups with very few males, this may suggest that males and females form polygynous bonds.
An interesting fact is that the female shows no signs of menstrual swelling. The gestation period usually ranges from five to six months. Only one young is usually born at a time, but twins are also known to occur. A female typically has a young every two years. Birth usually takes place at night up in a tree in the mother's home range. The young is weaned when it is around one year old. Sexual maturation occurs anywhere from two to five years of age.
The mona monkey lives in large packs ranging from five to fifty. There is usually only one adult male in a social group, but if the group gets large enough, there may be several adult males. Large groups such as these tend to be only temporary arrangements as a result of several small groups combining together. Large groups provides the benefit of keeping a more attentive watch for predators and other dangers. All-male groups are also known to exist, but are much smaller in size. Male groups usually consist of two to four males ranging in all age groups.
These monkeys are known to be loud and noisy, with calls that sound like expressive moans. Their alarm calls sound like little sneezes. The males make boom and hack calls in order to show territory and rank. Although it is commonly thought that their moan is the origin of their name "mona", their common name actually refers to their long tails and the Moorish root of the word.
Mona monkeys are very social and active. They are diurnal and active mostly during the early morning or late afternoon. They sometimes travel in troupes when moving across trees quickly. They "fly" across trees by running to the outer end of a tree branch and leaping across to another tree branch. They securely land on all four limbs in a vertical posture. However, they are also known to sometimes miss their landing and fall to the ground or in the water. This does not usually injure them severely for they have been seen to just climb up the nearest tree to join the troupe again.
When they feel like they are in danger, they freeze and remain still until the danger passes.
Mona monkeys are omnivorous. Most of their diet consists of fruits. In addition to eating fruit, they may also feed on sprouts, young leaves, and invertebrates. Of all species in the genus Cercopithecus, they eat the greatest amount of insects and least leaves. An interesting aspect of their feeding habits is how they store their food in cheek pouches. The capacity of these pouches is almost as large as their stomach. The pouches extend from the lower teeth to both sides of the neck. The cusps on their teeth are good for grinding food, which suits their diverse diet of foods.
Perhaps because their habitat is disappearing, mona monkeys are sometimes know to raid crops.
CHIROPTERA – Bats
Groome 1970, recorded eleven different species of bats in Grenada
Fish Eating bat – Noctilio leporinus
The sexes are slightly dimorphic in size, the males larger than the females. Head and body length is 98 to 132 mm, and forearm length measures 70 to 92 mm.
The sexes are also dimorphic in color, with males having reddish to orange pelage dorsally, and females generally having greyish or dull brown fur. Both males and females tend to have paler underparts, and the pelage is extremely short.
Noctilionids have a pointed muzzle and lack a nose leaf. The nose is somewhat tubular and projects slightly beyond the lips. Upper lips are smooth but divided by a "hare lip", a vertical fold of skin under the nostrils. The lips are also large and swollen in appearance, suggesting the common name, greater bulldog bat.
Noctilio leporinus has wings which are long and quite narrow, being more than two and a half times the length of the head and body. Nearly 65% of the wingspan is composed of Fish Eating bat the third digit.
– Noctilio leporinus
The tail is more than half as long as the thigh bone. It extends to about the middle of a well-developed uropatagium, or tail membrane. The tail tip is free, protruding for about 10 to 15 mm from the dorsal surface of this membrane.
Noctilio leporinus has unusually long hind limbs and very large hind feet with strong gaff-like claws.
This species tends to have pregnancies occuring from September until January, and lactation is first seen in November and continues until April. This is a general pattern, however, and it can vary with geographical location. Reproduction corresponds to seasons of greatest food availability.
Long-tongued bat – Glossophaga longirostris
This is a funny little bat that always occurs in groups of small numbers ranging from 1 to 20. They are usually found close to the entrance, in the twilight zone where it is not yet completely dark.
The length of the body including the head is only about 5 cm (2 inch). The tail is 7 mm (0.3 inch). And in total it weights about 10 grams (0.4 ounce).
The leaf on the nose one of its diagnostic features. This makes it a member of the family of leaf-nosed bats (Phillostomidae),
It is very fond of nectar, pollen and fruit. It likes the flowers of the kapok tree, the banana plants and the calabash. To reach the nectar in the flower, it uses its huge tongue. This can be 7 cm long! That's why it got its name.
Long-tongued bat – Glossophaga longirostris
This bat and the columnar cacti are interdependent. This means without cacti no bats, and without bats no cacti. When a bat visits a cactus flower, a cactus fruit can be set. Most cacti flower and set fruits in the dry season, thus producing food for other animals (like lora, prikichi and iguana) as well.
Fruit eating bat – Artibeus jamaicensis
The Jamaican fruit-eating bat eats figs and many other tropical forest fruits, including the pulpy layer surrounding nuts, such as the wild almond. After carrying fruits away to eat them, the bat then drops the nuts, dispersing seeds
for future trees. In addition to fruit, this species also eats pollen, nectar, and a few insects. They can be found in a variety of habitats, from dry deciduous forests to tropical evergreen forest and even cloud forest. Caves and hollow trees are their most common roosts, but sometimes they also create roosts by biting the midribs of large leaves until they hang down to form tents.
Fruit eating bat – Artibeus jamaicensis
Leaf-nosed bats are large bats having a wingspan of up to about 40-45 cm. The snout ends in a nose-leaf, which is an interesting flap of skin, muscle, and cartilage that assists the bat during echolocation. The fur is of medium length and is quite thick. A relatively narrow band of skin is stretched along the inner surface of the back legs (tail membrane) that assists the bat during flight
Jamaican fruit bats roost quietly during the day, and typically hang individually or in small clusters in a very wide range of structures, including caves, rock overhangs, rock fissures, hollow trees, foliage, and even man-made structures such as buildings.
Jamaican fruit bats have been observed to eat pollen, nectar, fruit, and insects though they are most commonly associated with large cultivated and wild fruits (Mango, Papaya, but never citrus fruits). While feeding, the fruit pulp is well chewed, compressed until dry, and then spat out. These bats will form flocks and will mob rich feeding sources like fruiting trees. Often they will carry fruit in their mouth back to a night roost and eat it there. If these fruits are dropped accidentally, the seeds may germinate and start a new tree. Their droppings vary in size and appearance depending on what they have been eating - dark brown-black, and sticky after a fruit meal, or coarse/crumbly with glistening specks of insect exoskeleton after eating insects. Leaves are sometimes chewed (presumably to extract fluid) then spat out as small dry pellets of leaf fibres onto the roost floor. Because roosts used by these bats are often fairly well lit inside during the day, seeds dropped onto the floor of the roost may germinate there if they receive sunlight and water. These bats may have some minor impact on cultivated fruit production, but are also important seed dispersers and pollinators of these very same crops. Artibeus will often feed throughout the night, except on brightly moonlit nights when they avoid flying - "lunar phobia" - a strategy for avoiding predators.
This species normally gives birth twice a year, though during a tough draught year, they may select to produce only a single young. Pregnant females have been found during February and July, while nursing mothers have been found April-July and as late as September. Births are timed to coincide with the rains/times when most food (flowers or fruit) is available. Babies are weaned at around two months, but attempt their first flights at 5-6 weeks of age. Artibeus are known to form harems in which a single male bat will defend 3-5 females.
The great fruit bat - Artibeus lituratus,
Feeding on the infloresences of Cecropia sp. Species of Artibeus are important dispersers of Cecropia. Morphological and anatomical study has revealed that the dispersal unit of Cecropia is the entire fruit, not just the seed. Bats consume the fleshy floral parts surrounding the fruits and disperse the fruits.
The great fruit bat - Artibeus lituratus,
Leaf-nosed bat - Carollia perspicillata
They can be ffound in moist evergreen and dry deciduous forest, usually below 1oom but up to 1500m.The bat has two reproductive periods. The larger one coincides with peak fruit productions, (June-August) and the other with the blooming of flowers at the end of the dry season (Feb.-May.) Gestation is 115-120 days. Newborns weigh about 5g.
Will enter a state of torpor when food is lacking. Gregarious with generalized roost requirements. Roost in groups of 10-100 in caves, hollow trees, tunnels road culverts,and less commonly in rocks, under leaves and in buildings. Two roost types: Harem (adult male with many females) and Bachelor (adult and sub adult males without a harem). Peak activity is right after sunset.
Generalist, feeding on a least 50 different species of fruit. Also pollen and insects. Generally forage close to the ground.Important disperser for many plants. Bats eat up to around 35 fruits of the genus Piper per night, which translates to 350-2,500 seeds dispersed per night per individual.
Leaf-nosed bat - Carollia perspicillata
Sac-winged bat – Peropteryx macrotis
Pygmy fruit eating bat – Arbiteus cinereus
Little Black bat - Myotis nigricans
Small free-tailed bat – Molussus obscurus
Bare-back bat – Pteronotus davyi
i. Micronycteris megalotis
Grenada has four amphibian species - The Giant Toad ( Bufo marinus ),the Highland Piping Frog (Eleutherodactylus urichi euphronides), The Piping Frog( E.Johnsonei ); and the German Woodland frog ( Leptodactylus wagneri ).
Bufo marinus - (Linnaeus 1758). Anura Bufonidae.
Bufo marinus is a large toad that was introduced to control insect pests in sugarcane fields. They can reach up to six inches long. They have warty skin and possess a pair of enlarged poison glands which secretes a toxin as a way to protect itself against predators. The toxin can cause blindness if rubbed in the eye.These toads are highly adaptable and will eat anything including insects, lizards, frogs, mice. They are common in low lands and can be encountered at nights feeding under street lights or along roadsides.
The Giant Toad ( Bufo marinus)
The piping frog - Eleutherodactylus johnsonei Barbour, 1914. Anura: Leptodactylidae.
This small whistling frog was introduced and is confined to the remnant forests of Grand Etang forest Reserve and Mt. St. Catherine.
It is brownish and about 1 inches long. It sings at night when the temperature is over 70 degrees F. They are good tree climbers because of the specially –adapted foot pads. They lay their eggs in pools of water which collect at the base of plant leaves
A small, dull-coloured frog, adult males are 17-25 mm long and adult females, 17-35 mm. Brown to Gray tan dorsal ground colour with usually one or two darker chevrons. Often a narrow
The piping frog - Eleutherodactylus johnsonei
Mid-dorsal pinstripe or a broad pair of dorsal stripes. Marbled, stippled, or blotched on a dark brown to Gray tan ground posterior thigh surface and creamy under surface. Iris gold above and brownish below. Smooth to slightly tuberculate dorsum; head a little broader than long; snout truncate from above; large eyes with eyelids that have many low, rounded tubercles. Distinct tympanum; oblique vomerine odontophores. Distinct, small, rounded finger and toe disks; lacks digital webbing. Many small plantar tubercles; elongate inner metatarsal tubercle larger than conical outer metatarsal tubercle; lacks tarsal fold. Adult males have paired vocal slits and a distensible internal subgular vocal sac strongly granular when uninflated; lacks nuptial thumb pads.
Eats mostly ants, but also spiders, leafhoppers, and springtails Mating Behaviour: During wet season, peaks around June to August Females approach calling males to initiate courtship. Repeatedly, male moves away, calling softly, and the female follows until both reach a possible oviposition site. Other males may follow and compete for the female with calls and, sometimes, physical means. Female accepts male by backing under him. Male clasps female in axillary amplexus or perches on her back; less often, a pair uses a reverse hind leg clasp, a position only known in E. coqui, which has internal fertilization. Both go through abdominal pulsations and body spasms before the female begins to lay eggs.
Eggs and Froglets: Clutches found throughout the year but most often during the wettest months and contain 10-30 unpigmented eggs covered in a thin layer of viscous mucus. Newly laid, egg diameters average around 3.0 mm. Froglets hatch from the eggs by using an egg tooth located on the tip of the snout. They have snout vent lengths of about 4.0 mm. Their short stumpy tails disappear within a day, and the froglets reach sexual maturity in about one year.
Call: Two-note whistle that can be repeated at a maximum of 60 times per minute. First note, frequency about 2 kHz for 70-90 milliseconds. Longer second note, lasting 180-270 milliseconds, that rises sharply from about 3 to 4 kHz. Average interval between calls is 1.2 seconds.
Oviposition calls are identical to diurnal retreat calls, but are different from lead away calls of initial courtship by duration and frequency.
The highland piping frog - Eleutherodactylus euphronidesSwartz, 1967. Anura: Leptodactylidae:
This small frog is endemic and found at high elevations montane forests at Grand Etang and Mt. St. Catherine (Henderson 2002)
This is a moderate-sized frog for its genus. Males have been known to have a maximum snout to vent length (SVL) of 27mm while females at 39.4mm. Labial areas are typically mottled, while a brown dorsum and cream venter are also exhibited. There exists a supratympanic stripe of dark shade that runs from the corner of the eye to the armpit.
This species is most commonly found in mesic forests at elevations of over 300 meters on Granada (Kaiser and Henderson 1994) . More generally, the species may be located within altitudes of 300-840m, which has been listed as its elevational range .An account has also been described near sea level at St. George’s.
Males of species E. euphronides and E. johnstonei have been documented as calling side by side in the Grand Etang forest interior by (Germano et al. 2003) . The greyish egg of the species may be distinguished by their large diameter, relative to E. johnstonei.
The highland piping frog - Eleutherodactylus euphronides
While Kaiser et al. (1994b) reported a drop of this species population coupled with the encroachment of E. johnstonei, Germano et al. (2003) documented the lack of a significant decline upon E. Euphronides by the presence of E. johnstonei in the Grand Etang Forest Reserve.
The Garman's woodland frog - Leptodactylus validus (Garman, 1887). Anura: Leptodactylidae :Native.
This is a medium sized frog characteristic of the primeval forest of the Grand Etang Forests. Hendenson, 2004, however found them in puddles near road side ditches near human habitation.
The Garman's woodland frog - Leptodactylus validus
Eight species of lizards are said to be found in Grenada -
The Crested Anole or Tree Lizard - Anolis aeneus Gray 1840: Squamosa Polychrotidae. Native. Grenada Bush anole
Tree Lizard - Anolis aeneus
Dumeril and Bibron 1837. Squamosa: Polychrotidae. Introduced.
A large (to 121 cm SVL) gecko with heavily fringed digits with retractable claws, and a large autonomous tail. The dorsum is mottled gray, the venter cream coloured, and the vertically eliptical pupil is centered in a golden or silver iris.
This species is nocturnal, often found foraging on dwellings around a light source. This species often vocalizes when captured, producing a low squeaking croak. Avila-Peres(1995) provide a synthesis of reported natural history of this species.
The slippery back lizard - Mabuya sloanei. Squamosa. Scincidae. native - was thought to have been extinct, but it appears that its numbers are increasing.
The common anole or wall lizard (Anolis richardii) Dumeril and Bibron 1837. Squmata: Polychrotidae. This large native anole is ecological generalists in natural and disturbed habitats
The common anole or wall lizard (Anolis richardii)
The wood slave - Thecadactylus rapicaunda ( Houttuyn 1972.) Squamota: Gekkonidae. Large gecko which can be encountered at night in low land forest areas.
The body measures four inches and the tail an additional two inches. Thecadactylus is a tree-dweller where it is camouflaged by its cryptic coloration. The skin of most geckos is loose and
fragile and the tail breaks easily; may be of some advantage in aiding escape. The female lays an oval egg about three quarters of an inch long.
The wood slave - Thecadactylus rapicaund
The common house gecko - Hemidactylus mabouya (Moreau de Jonnes 1818) Squamata was introduced from Africa. It is smaller than the wood slave and is found in densely developed areas along the harbour in St. George’s. It is locally known as mabouya. It grows to a length of five inches, half of which is taken up by the tail.
The common house gecko - Hemidactylus mabouya
During the day, the gecko is found in dark crevices and shows a series of V-shaped, transverse bands on the back and tail. In the late evening, these geckos come out to hunt : they may congregate at lights to feed on insects attracted there.
The Iguana iguana - Linnaeus 1758.Squamosa. Iguanidae. Native.
The Iguana is the largest lizard found in Grenada. Iguanas are tree dwellers but are frequently seen on the ground. The skin of the iguana is basically green with brown or black markings. Along the neck is a crest of spines which gives it the look of a prehistoric monster. Found mainly in dry lowland forested areas e.g. Levera, southern seascape, Hog island, White Island and Saline Island.The Iguana grows up to six feet in length, about half of this being a strong whip-like tail. If surprised in the top of a tree, it may escape by crashing to the ground and running off. They also are excellent swimmers.
The females lay up to seventeen eggs in the ground which take about fourteen weeks to hatch. The iguanas feed on leaves, shoots and fruits. Iguanas have disappeared from most of their habitat due to hunting
The Garman's ground lizard - Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758). Squamata: Teiidae. or zaggada, a handsome blue coloured lizard, (male) is now found only in Grenada and the Grenadines. It is common along dry forest edges at low elevations. It is a sun loving lizard and was almost brought to extinction by the mongoose.
Garman's ground lizard - Ameiva ameiva
Alien's Ground Lizard - Bachia heteropus allen (Weigmann in Liechten stein 1856) Squmata: Gymnopthalmidae. Native. A small lizard with reduced limbs and a very long tail adapted for burrowing.
Five species of snakes are found in Grenada -
The burrowing snake – Typhlops tasymicris Thomas, 1974. Squamosa: Typhopidae. This is a rare and endemic tiny blind snake which had been seen mainly in the Parish of St. David’s in moist areas at low elevations.
The tree boa or Serpent - Corallus grenadensis (Barbour, 1914) Squamosa Boidae is Native. It is nocturnal and found in natural forests, altered forests and orchards throughout Grenada (Henderson, 2002)
Grenadian tree boa - Corallus grenadensis
The Grenadian Bank tree boa (The Grenada Bank includes Grenada and several islands to the north of it collectively known as the Grenadines) is one of the most variable species with colour patterns seen in conjunction with certain habitats and environments.
This species was first described by Barbour in 1914 as Boa grenadensis. Since then, many authors have listed this species as Corallus enydris (=hortulanus) cookii. Henderson (1997) resurrected the species name grenadensis when he elevated it to full species level.
In terms of colour, the primary background colours vary from yellows to browns and greys. According to Henderson (2002), the colours yellow and taupe make up more than 95% of the almost 200 animals encountered with taupe being the most predominant colour. Various degrees of yellow are exhibited throughout the species from a bright yellow to more dirty yellows and into shades of oranges. Yellow individuals may be pattern less or show only a little speckling. The ventral coloration is usually a dull yellow, cream or white approximately 80% of the patterns on individuals falls into the category of spade-shaped with either sharp or rounded edges.
Colour also seems to correlate with iris colour, tongue colour, rainfall, altitude and percent possible sunshine (Henderson 2002). Yellow individuals are most commonly observed in low elevations where rainfall is lower and the terrain is exposed to more sunshine. Dark brown animals occur at the highest elevations in forests where rainfall is high and the dense canopy blocks out most of the sunshine. The intermediate taupe-coloured snakes occupy middle elevations that are intermediate to those of the two others.
Yellow individuals have yellow-coloured irises and a pale coloured tongue while taupe and brown individuals exhibit dark irises and dark brown or black tongues.
Much of the scalation of the Amazon tree boa complex overlaps with each other but different meristic characters can be used to differentiate different species from each other. Here are the scale counts, per Henderson 1997.
Lizards and mammals make up the primary diet of Corallus grenadensis with juveniles taking mostly lizards and adults taking more mammals in their diet. Data from Henderson 1993f and Pendlebury 1974 show that the diet breakdown of the species consists of: 68% lizards, 27% mammals and 5% birds. Of the lizards, this species feeds almost exclusively on Anolis species. Snakes have been documented to feed on prey as large as 30% of the snake's mass.
The Grenada Bank tree boa exhibits a change in their diet as they mature. Juveniles under 750 mm feed almost exclusively on Anolis lizards. Sub adults between 750 - 950 mm show a strong shift towards mammals (75% mammals vs. 25% lizards) and adults over 1000 mm feed almost exclusively on mammals (Henderson 2002).
Documented prey species for Corallus grenadensis include the following (from Henderson 2002): bronze anole Anolis aeneus, Richard's anole Anolis richardi, green iguana Iguana iguana, coereba Coereba flaveola, house mouse Mus musculus, and roof rat Rattus rattus.
Documented predators for the Grenada Bank tree boa include: the opossum Didelphis marsupialis and the introduced Mona monkey Cercopithecus mona (Henderson 2002).
Boddaerts's tree snake Mastigodryas bruesi (Barbour, 1914). Squamosa: Colubridge Native.. A sender ground and tree dwelling snake found at the edge of forests. Also called a “grass snake”
The Cribo Clelia (Daudin, 1803) Squamosa: Colubridae. Native. a powerful constrictor, feared locally for its strength, is also an excellent rodent exterminator. Appears to be almost extinct.
The white headed worm snake Leptotyphlops margaritae.